Geography of Montenegro

Terrain[edit]

Terrain in Montenegro ranges from high mountains in the northern part of the country, through karst segment in central and western part, to almost 300 km of a narrow coastal plain. The coastal plain disappears completely in the north, where Mount Lovćen and other mountain ranges plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Gulf of Kotor. The coastal region is noted for active seismicity.

Montenegro’s section of the karst lies generally at elevations of 100 m (328 ft) above sea level-although some areas rise to 1,800 m (5,906 ft). The lowest segment is in the valley of the Zeta River, which flows at an elevation of 450 m (1,476 ft). The river occupies the centre of Nikšić field, a flat-floored, elongated depression typical of karstic regions. The underlying rock is predominantly limestone, which dissolves to form sinkholes and caves. The longest cave in Montenegro is Vražji firovi — 10,5 km long cave north-east from Berane, and the deepest sinkhole is Željezna jama -1027 m on mount Maganik.

The Zeta River Valley, or Bjelopavlići plain, merges in the southeast with the second significant flat lowland in Montenegro, the Zeta plain. Zeta plain stretches north of the Lake Scutari at elevation of 40 m (131 ft). The two plains are today the most densely populated areas of Montenegro, housing the two biggest Montenegrin cities, Podgorica and Nikšić.

The high mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in elevation. Among notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches 2,523 m (8,278 ft). The Montenegrin mountains were the most ice-eroded section of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

The Coastedit

The coast of Montenegro is 294 km (183 mi) long. Unlike its northern neighbour Croatia, Montenegro has no large inhabited islands along the coast. A notable feature of the Montenegrin coast is Bay of Kotor, a fjord-like gulf, which is in fact a submerged river canyon. The Bay of Kotor is surrounded by mountains up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) high, which plunge almost vertically into the sea.

To the south of the Bay of Kotor, there is a narrow coastal plain, no more than 4 km wide, which is guarded from the north by high mountains. The plain provided space for numerous small coastal settlements.

Hydrologyedit

Lago Skadar in Montenegro

Montenegro’s surface runoff in the north is carried away by the Lim and Tara river systems, which enter the Danube via the Drina River of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic Sea. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.

The largest lake in Montenegro and the Balkans is Lake Scutari. Known in Montenegro as Skadarsko Jezero, it lies near the coast and extends across the international border into northern Albania. It is 50 km (31 mi) long and 16 km (9.9 mi) wide, with a total surface area of 370 km2 (142.9 sq mi). Some 60 percent lies within Montenegrin territory. The water body occupies a karstic polje depression that has a floor lying below sea level.

Montenegro’s mountainous regions are noted for their numerous lakes.

Terrain[edit]

Terrain in Montenegro ranges from high mountains in the northern part of the country, through karst segment in central and western part, to almost 300 km of a narrow coastal plain. The coastal plain disappears completely in the north, where Mount Lovćen and other mountain ranges plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Gulf of Kotor. The coastal region is noted for active seismicity.

Montenegro’s section of the karst lies generally at elevations of 100 m (328 ft) above sea level-although some areas rise to 1,800 m (5,906 ft). The lowest segment is in the valley of the Zeta River, which flows at an elevation of 450 m (1,476 ft). The river occupies the centre of Nikšić field, a flat-floored, elongated depression typical of karstic regions. The underlying rock is predominantly limestone, which dissolves to form sinkholes and caves. The longest cave in Montenegro is Vražji firovi — 10,5 km long cave north-east from Berane, and the deepest sinkhole is Željezna jama -1027 m on mount Maganik.

The Zeta River Valley, or Bjelopavlići plain, merges in the southeast with the second significant flat lowland in Montenegro, the Zeta plain. Zeta plain stretches north of the Lake Scutari at elevation of 40 m (131 ft). The two plains are today the most densely populated areas of Montenegro, housing the two biggest Montenegrin cities, Podgorica and Nikšić.

The high mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in elevation. Among notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches 2,523 m (8,278 ft). The Montenegrin mountains were the most ice-eroded section of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

The Coastedit

The coast of Montenegro is 294 km (183 mi) long. Unlike its northern neighbour Croatia, Montenegro has no large inhabited islands along the coast. A notable feature of the Montenegrin coast is Bay of Kotor, a fjord-like gulf, which is in fact a submerged river canyon. The Bay of Kotor is surrounded by mountains up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) high, which plunge almost vertically into the sea.

To the south of the Bay of Kotor, there is a narrow coastal plain, no more than 4 km wide, which is guarded from the north by high mountains. The plain provided space for numerous small coastal settlements.

Hydrologyedit

Lago Skadar in Montenegro

Montenegro’s surface runoff in the north is carried away by the Lim and Tara river systems, which enter the Danube via the Drina River of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic Sea. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.

The largest lake in Montenegro and the Balkans is Lake Scutari. Known in Montenegro as Skadarsko Jezero, it lies near the coast and extends across the international border into northern Albania. It is 50 km (31 mi) long and 16 km (9.9 mi) wide, with a total surface area of 370 km2 (142.9 sq mi). Some 60 percent lies within Montenegrin territory. The water body occupies a karstic polje depression that has a floor lying below sea level.

Montenegro’s mountainous regions are noted for their numerous lakes.

Main parameters in Montenegro

Population

622 388 number of people(2015)

(descending):
166 in the world of 233 (29,18%);
38 place in Europe from 53 (30,19%) 0,476 % (0,095 % annual) min: 480 579; max: 622 388; max-min: 141 809 (22,78%); mid: 551 484; 70 905 (11,39%)

Surface area

13 810 sq. km.(2015)

(descending):
158 in the world of 233 (32,62%);
38 place in Europe from 53 (30,19%)

Population density

46,26 people per sq. km of land area(2015)

(descending):
164 in the world of 230 (29,13%);
43 place in Europe from 52 (19,23%) 0,439 % (0,088 % annual) min: 36,52; max: 46,26; max-min: 9,74 (21,06%); mid: 41,39; 4,87 (10,53%)

Population growth rate

0,093 annual %(2015)

(descending):
188 in the world of 216 (13,43%);
27 place in Europe from 49 (46,94%) 97,22 % (19,44 % annual) min: -1,02; max: 2,30; max-min: 3,32 (144,46%); mid: 0,638; -0,545 (-586,86%)

Surface area

2,22 hectar per person(2015)

(ascending):
164 in the world of 233 (30,04%);
43 place in Europe from 53 (20,75%) 0,478 % (0,096 % annual) min: 2,22; max: 2,88; max-min: 0,660 (22,92%); mid: 2,55; -0,330 (-14,87%)

Land use in Montenegro

Agricultural land

17,12
{% of land area
}
(2014)

(descending):
160 in the world of 208 (23,56%);
38 place in Europe from 46 (19,57%) 122,30 % (24,46 % annual)
min: 16,59; max: 38,29; max-min: 21,70 (56,67%); mid: 27,44; -10,32 (-60,24%)

2 303
{sq.km.
}
(2014)

(descending):
155 in the world of 209 (26,32%);
37 place in Europe from 46 (21,74%) 122,30 % (24,46 % annual)
min: 2 231; max: 5 150; max-min: 2 919 (56,67%); mid: 3 691; -1 387 (-60,24%)

0,382
{hectares per person
}
(2015)

(descending):
101 in the world of 207 (51,69%);
25 place in Europe from 46 (47,83%) 116,60 % (23,32 % annual)
min: 0,382; max: 0,840; max-min: 0,458 (54,57%); mid: 0,611; -0,229 (-60,06%)

Arable land

0,649
{% of land area
}
(2014)

(descending):
193 in the world of 206 (6,80%);
45 place in Europe from 46 (4,35%) 1 870 % (374,04 % annual)
min: 0,580; max: 12,94; max-min: 12,36 (95,52%); mid: 6,76; -6,11 (-941,24%)

96,60
{sq.km.
}
(2015)

(descending):
168 in the world of 206 (18,93%);
40 place in Europe from 46 (15,22%) 1 681 % (336,11 % annual)
min: 96,60; max: 1 740; max-min: 1 643 (94,45%); mid: 918,30; -821,70 (-850,62%)

0,016
{hectares per person
}
(2015)

(descending):
190 in the world of 206 (8,25%);
46 place in Europe from 46 (2,17%) 1 689 % (337,81 % annual)
min: 0,016; max: 0,283; max-min: 0,268 (94,52%); mid: 0,149; -0,134 (-862,54%)

Forest area

61,49
{% of land area
}
(2015)

(descending):
27 in the world of 205 (87,32%);
4 place in Europe from 45 (93,33%)

8 270
{sq. km.
}
(2015)

(descending):
126 in the world of 206 (39,32%);
30 place in Europe from 45 (35,56%)

1,33
{hectares per person
}
(2015)

(descending):
36 in the world of 204 (82,84%);
7 place in Europe from 45 (86,67%) 0,478 % (0,096 % annual)
min: 1,02; max: 1,34; max-min: 0,316 (23,67%); mid: 1,18; 0,152 (11,41%)

Terrain

Terrain in Montenegro ranges from high mountains in the northern part of the country, through karst segment in central and western part, to a narrow coastal plain. The coastal plain disappears completely in the north, where Mount Lovćen and other mountain ranges plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Gulf of Kotor. The coastal region is noted for active seismicity.

Montenegro’s section of the karst lies generally at elevations of 100 m (328 ft) above sea level-although some areas rise to 1,800 m (5,906 ft). The lowest segment is in the valley of the Zeta River, which flows at an elevation of 450 m (1,476 ft). The river occupies the centre of Nikšić field, a flat-floored, elongated depression typical of karstic regions. The underlying rock is predominantly limestone, which dissolves to form sinkholes and underground caves.

The Zeta River Valley, or Bjelopavlići plain, merges in the southeast with the second significant flat lowland in Montenegro, the Zeta plain. Zeta plain stretches north of the Lake Scutari at elevation of 40 m (131 ft). The two plains are today the most densely populated areas of Montenegro, housing the two biggest Montenegrin cities, Podgorica and Nikšić.

The high mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in elevation. Among notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches 2,523 m (8,278 ft). The Montenegrin mountains were the most ice-eroded section of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

  The Coast

Main article: Montenegrin Littoral

See also: List of islands of Montenegro

The coast of Montenegro is 294 km (183 mi) long. Unlike its northern neighbour Croatia, Montenegro has no large inhabited islands along the coast. A notable feature of the Montenegrin coast is Bay of Kotor, a fjord-like gulf, which is in fact a submerged river canyon. The Bay of Kotor is surrounded by mountains up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) high, which plunge alsmost vertically into the sea.

To the south of the Bay of Kotor, there is a narrow coastal plain, no more than 4 km wide, which is guarded from the north by high mountains. The plain provided space for numerous small coastal settlements.

  Hydrology

See also: List of lakes in Montenegro and List of rivers of Montenegro

Montenegro’s surface runoff in the north is carried away by the Lim and Tara river systems, which enter the Danube via the Drina River of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic Sea. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.

The largest lake in Montenegro and the Balkans is Lake Scutari. Known in Montenegro as Skadarsko Jezero, it lies near the coast and extends across the international border into northern Albania. It is 50 km (31 mi) long and 16 km (9.9 mi) wide, with a total surface area of 370 km2 (142.9 sq mi). Some 60 percent lies within Montenegrin territory. The water body occupies a karstic polje depression that has a floor lying below sea level.

Montenegro’s mountainous regions are noted for their numerous lakes.

Terrain[edit]

Terrain in Montenegro ranges from high mountains in the northern part of the country, through karst segment in central and western part, to almost 300 km of a narrow coastal plain. The coastal plain disappears completely in the north, where Mount Lovćen and other mountain ranges plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Gulf of Kotor. The coastal region is noted for active seismicity.

Montenegro’s section of the karst lies generally at elevations of 100 m (328 ft) above sea level-although some areas rise to 1,800 m (5,906 ft). The lowest segment is in the valley of the Zeta River, which flows at an elevation of 450 m (1,476 ft). The river occupies the centre of Nikšić field, a flat-floored, elongated depression typical of karstic regions. The underlying rock is predominantly limestone, which dissolves to form sinkholes and caves. The longest cave in Montenegro is Vražji firovi — 10,5 km long cave north-east from Berane, and the deepest sinkhole is Željezna jama -1027 m on mount Maganik.

The Zeta River Valley, or Bjelopavlići plain, merges in the southeast with the second significant flat lowland in Montenegro, the Zeta plain. Zeta plain stretches north of the Lake Scutari at elevation of 40 m (131 ft). The two plains are today the most densely populated areas of Montenegro, housing the two biggest Montenegrin cities, Podgorica and Nikšić.

The high mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in elevation. Among notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches 2,523 m (8,278 ft). The Montenegrin mountains were the most ice-eroded section of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

The Coastedit

The coast of Montenegro is 294 km (183 mi) long. Unlike its northern neighbour Croatia, Montenegro has no large inhabited islands along the coast. A notable feature of the Montenegrin coast is Bay of Kotor, a fjord-like gulf, which is in fact a submerged river canyon. The Bay of Kotor is surrounded by mountains up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) high, which plunge almost vertically into the sea.

To the south of the Bay of Kotor, there is a narrow coastal plain, no more than 4 km wide, which is guarded from the north by high mountains. The plain provided space for numerous small coastal settlements.

Hydrologyedit

Lago Skadar in Montenegro

Montenegro’s surface runoff in the north is carried away by the Lim and Tara river systems, which enter the Danube via the Drina River of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic Sea. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.

The largest lake in Montenegro and the Balkans is Lake Scutari. Known in Montenegro as Skadarsko Jezero, it lies near the coast and extends across the international border into northern Albania. It is 50 km (31 mi) long and 16 km (9.9 mi) wide, with a total surface area of 370 km2 (142.9 sq mi). Some 60 percent lies within Montenegrin territory. The water body occupies a karstic polje depression that has a floor lying below sea level.

Montenegro’s mountainous regions are noted for their numerous lakes.

Природные богатства экологически чистого государства

Жители Черногории заботятся о той небольшой территории, которую занимает их страна. Поэтому неудивительно, что это государство признано одним из наиболее экологически чистых регионов Средиземноморья.

Большую часть черногорской территории занимает Динарское нагорье, высшей точкой которого является гора Боботов Кук (высотой 2522 метра). В этой высокогорной местности в 1952 году был создан Национальный парк «Дурмитор», который включает в себя одноименный горный массив, часть плато Комарница, а также каньоны рек Сушицы, Тары и Драги.

Дурмитор считается центром горного туризма страны, а основные объекты инфраструктуры сосредоточены возле населенного пункта Жабляк. В 1980 году Дурмитор был взят под охрану ЮНЕСКО.

Водные ресурсы государства сосредоточены в следующих реках: Тара, Пива, Лим, Чеотина, Буна, Морача, Зета и Буна. Еще о Черногории нам известно как о стране сорока озёр, среди которых можно назвать Чёрное, Биоградское и Визиторское. А Скадарское озеро является еще и самым крупным на всём Балканском полуострове.

Ну, а изюминкой географии Черногории являются водопады и ледниковые пещеры в горах Проклетие.

Terrain

Terrain in Montenegro ranges from high mountains in the northern part of the country, through karst segment in central and western part, to almost 300 km of a narrow coastal plain. The coastal plain disappears completely in the north, where Mount Lovćen and other mountain ranges plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Gulf of Kotor. The coastal region is noted for active seismicity.

Montenegro’s section of the karst lies generally at elevations of 100 m (328 ft) above sea level-although some areas rise to 1,800 m (5,906 ft). The lowest segment is in the valley of the Zeta River, which flows at an elevation of 450 m (1,476 ft). The river occupies the centre of Nikšić field, a flat-floored, elongated depression typical of karstic regions. The underlying rock is predominantly limestone, which dissolves to form sinkholes and caves. The longest cave in Montenegro is Vražji firovi — 10,5 km long cave north-east from Berane, and the deepest sinkhole is Željezna jama -1027 m on mount Maganik.

The Zeta River Valley, or Bjelopavlići plain, merges in the southeast with the second significant flat lowland in Montenegro, the Zeta plain. Zeta plain stretches north of the Lake Scutari at elevation of 40 m (131 ft). The two plains are today the most densely populated areas of Montenegro, housing the two biggest Montenegrin cities, Podgorica and Nikšić.

The high mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in elevation. Among notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountain, which reaches 2,523 m (8,278 ft). The Montenegrin mountains were the most ice-eroded section of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

The Coast

The coast of Montenegro is 294 km (183 mi) long. Unlike its northern neighbour Croatia, Montenegro has no large inhabited islands along the coast. A notable feature of the Montenegrin coast is Bay of Kotor, a fjord-like gulf, which is in fact a submerged river canyon. The Bay of Kotor is surrounded by mountains up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft) high, which plunge almost vertically into the sea.

To the south of the Bay of Kotor, there is a narrow coastal plain, no more than 4 km wide, which is guarded from the north by high mountains. The plain provided space for numerous small coastal settlements.

Hydrology

Lago Skadar in Montenegro

Montenegro’s surface runoff in the north is carried away by the Lim and Tara river systems, which enter the Danube via the Drina River of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic Sea. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.

The largest lake in Montenegro and the Balkans is Lake Scutari. Known in Montenegro as Skadarsko Jezero, it lies near the coast and extends across the international border into northern Albania. It is 50 km (31 mi) long and 16 km (9.9 mi) wide, with a total surface area of 370 km2 (142.9 sq mi). Some 60 percent lies within Montenegrin territory. The water body occupies a karstic polje depression that has a floor lying below sea level.

Montenegro’s mountainous regions are noted for their numerous lakes.

Statistics

Geographic coordinates:

Area — comparative: slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Connecticut

Area

Total: 13,812 km² (5,332 sq mi)

Land: 13,452 km² (5,193 sq mi)

Water: 360 km² (138 sq mi)

Length of the coast (coastline): 293.5 km (182 mi)

Length of the international borders: 625 km (388 mi) (all)

  • With Croatia: 14 km (8 mi) or 25 km (15 mi)
  • With Bosnia and Herzegovina: 225 km (139 mi)
  • With Serbia: 124 km (77 mi)
  • and with Albania: 172 km (106 mi)

Land under cultivation: 517,153 ha

Land use:

  • arable land: 12.45%
  • permanent crops: 1.16%
  • other: 86.39%

Irrigated land: 24.12 km2

Maritime claims:

Points
  • Lowest point
  • Highest point
  • NorthernmostMoćevići, Pljevlja municipality — 43°32′N 18°58′E / 43.533°N 18.967°E / 43.533; 18.967 (Mocevici (north))

    point:

  • SouthernmostMala Ada, Ulcinj municipality — 41°55′N 19°22′E / 41.917°N 19.367°E / 41.917; 19.367 (Mala Ada (south))

    point:

  • EasternmostJablanica, Rožaje municipality — 42°53′N 20°21′E / 42.883°N 20.350°E / 42.883; 20.350 (Jablanica (east))

    point:

  • WesternmostPrijevor, Herceg Novi municipality — 42°29′N 18°26′E / 42.483°N 18.433°E / 42.483; 18.433 (Prijevor (west))

    point:

Statistics[edit]

Geographic coordinates:

Area — comparative: slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Connecticut

Area

Total: 13,812 km² (5,332 sq mi)

Land: 13,452 km² (5,193 sq mi)

Water: 360 km² (138 sq mi)

Length of the coast (coastline): 293.5 km (182 mi)

Length of the international borders: 625 km (388 mi) (all)

  • With Croatia: 14 km (8 mi) or 25 km (15 mi)
  • With Bosnia and Herzegovina: 225 km (139 mi)
  • With Serbia: 124 km (77 mi)
  • and with Albania: 172 km (106 mi)

Land under cultivation: 517,153 ha

Land use:

  • arable land: 12.45%
  • permanent crops: 1.16%
  • other: 86.39%

Irrigated land: 24.12 km2

Maritime claims:

Points
  • Lowest point
  • Highest point
  • NorthernmostMoćevići, Pljevlja municipality — 43°32′N 18°58′E / 43.533°N 18.967°E / 43.533; 18.967 (Mocevici (north))

    point:

  • SouthernmostMala Ada, Ulcinj municipality — 41°55′N 19°22′E / 41.917°N 19.367°E / 41.917; 19.367 (Mala Ada (south))

    point:

  • EasternmostJablanica, Rožaje municipality — 42°53′N 20°21′E / 42.883°N 20.350°E / 42.883; 20.350 (Jablanica (east))

    point:

  • WesternmostPrijevor, Herceg Novi municipality — 42°29′N 18°26′E / 42.483°N 18.433°E / 42.483; 18.433 (Prijevor (west))

    point:

Facts

  • Geographic coordinates:
  • Total area: 14,026 km²
    • Land area: 13,812 km²
    • Water area: 214 km²
  • Length of the coast (coastline): 293.5 km
  • Length of the international borders: 625 km (total)
    • With Croatia: 14 km or 25 km
    • With Bosnia and Herzegovina: 225 km
    • With Serbia: 124 km
    • With Albania: 172 km
  • Land under cultivation: 517,153 ha
  • Land use:
    • arable land: 13.7%
    • permanent crops: 1%
    • other: 85.3%
  • Area — comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut
  • Maritime claims:
Points
  • Lowest point
  • Highest point
  • NorthernmostMocevici, Pljevlja municipality — 43°32′N 18°58′E / 43.533°N 18.967°E / 43.533; 18.967 (Mocevici (north))

    point:

  • SouthernmostMala Ada, Ulcinj municipality — 41°55′N 19°22′E / 41.917°N 19.367°E / 41.917; 19.367 (Mala Ada (south))

    point:

  • EasternmostJablanica, Rožaje municipality — 42°53′N 20°21′E / 42.883°N 20.35°E / 42.883; 20.35 (Jablanica (east))

    point:

  • WesternmostPrijevor, Herceg Novi municipality — 42°29′N 18°26′E / 42.483°N 18.433°E / 42.483; 18.433 (Prijevor (west))

    point:

Geography

Ranging from towering peaks along the Serbian and Albanian borders to a small coastal plain, Montenegro is home to a diverse landscape due to its position on the Balkan peninsula and Adriatic Sea

Consisting of some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, Montenegro’s most notable mountain ranges include the Durmitor range, Mount Orjen and Mount Lovcen.

The highest point is Bobotov Kuk, located in the Durmitor range, with an elevation of 8,274 ft (2,522 m).

East, along the Adriatic Sea, a prominent element on the Montenegrin coast is a submerged river canyon known as the Bay of Kotor.

Significant rivers of Montenegro include the Drina, Tara and Lim. Montenegro’s largest lake is Lake Skadar, and is shared with Albania.

  • Bodies of Water of Europe
  • Landforms of Europe
  • Rivers of Europe
GeographySerbia and Montenegro
Location:Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographic coordinates:44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 102,350 sq km land: 102,136 sq km water: 214 sq km
Area — comparative:slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:total: 2,246 km border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline:199 km
Maritime claims:NA
Climate:in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Terrain:extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Natural resources:oil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land
Land use:arable land: 33.35% permanent crops: 3.2% other: 63.45% (2001)
Irrigated land:570 sq km
Natural hazards:destructive earthquakes
Environment — current issues:pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment — international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography — note:controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

Note: The information tabled directly above was researched by and provided by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.

Tourism and Trade in Montenegro

12. The country has a diverse population. Native Montenegrins make up about 45% of its population while Serbs, Bosniaks, Albanians, Muslims and Croats form the rest of the country’s population.

13. Serbia, Italy, Germany, Croatia, and Hungary are its major trade partners.

14. Tourism, steel making, aluminum and food processing represent its major industries. Handmade carpets, wood carvings, tapestries, ceramics, filigree jewelry, ceramics, art and wine are some of the famous items from the region that you can buy while in Montenegro.

15. The World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) placed Montenegro first on its list of countries where tourism is a strategic industry. Tourism in the country is expected to grow at a rate of 8.8 percent over the next ten years. Are you looking to visit a new place? Why not Montenegro? You can also enjoy winter snow sports such as skiing and snowboarding, as well as other sports including climbing, white-water rafting, scuba diving and many more.

16. Crvena Stijena by the village Petrovici near Niksic is one of Montenegro’s oldest cultural and historical monuments. The cave is unique in the world because of the numerous cultural artifacts it contains.

17. Sveti Stefan is certainly one of the tourist icons of Montenegro. It is located just 15 minutes from Budva, by car.

18. The monastery of Ostrog, located above the Bjelopavlic valley, is one of the most visited shrines in the Christian world. It is carved in rocks and was founded in the 17th century by Saint Basil.

19. Montenegrins celebrate their national holiday on July 13, which is also known as Statehood Day. They celebrate this day to commemorate the day that Montenegro was recognized as the 27th independent state in the world by the Berlin Congress, which occurred on July 13, 1878.

20. Montenegro winters are cold, snowy and intolerable. This is the reason why the country sees a drop in tourism during these months.

Continue reading on the next page…

Geography

Montenegro is bordered by Croatia to the north, Bosnia & Herzegovina to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Albania to the south. To the east lie the deep blue waters of the Adriatic Sea, and it is the 293km (183-mile) Montenegrin coastal strip that attracts the majority of visitors, with top destinations being the centuries-old seaside towns of Kotor and Budva. Here one of the most notably features is the stunning Bay of Kotor, a submerged river canyon resembling a fjord.

Inland, the landscape is dominated by dramatic soaring alpine mountains rising over 2,000m (6,562ft), with the highest peak, Bobotov Kuk, reaching 2,523m (8,278ft). Here you’ll find dramatic glacial features, such as lakes and canyons, the most impressive being the River Tara Canyon, and dense forests. In the centre of the country, around Podgorica and Nikšić, lie fertile plains planted with crops and vineyards, while to the south, on the border with Albania, lies Lake Skadar, a vast wetland. Approximately 38% of land is given over to agriculture, but of this only 10% is cultivated, due to difficult terrain and poor soils.

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Facts

  • Geographic coordinates:
  • Total area: 14,026 km²
    • Land area: 13,812 km²
    • Water area: 214 km²
  • Length of the coast (coastline): 293.5 km
  • Length of the international borders: 625 km (total)
    • With Croatia: 14 km or 25 km
    • With Bosnia and Herzegovina: 225 km
    • With Serbia: 124 km
    • With Albania: 172 km
  • Land under cultivation: 517,153 ha
  • Land use:
    • arable land: 13.7%
    • permanent crops: 1%
    • other: 85.3%
  • Area — comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut
  • Maritime claims:
Points
  • Lowest point
  • Highest point
  • NorthernmostMocevici, Pljevlja municipality — 43°32′N 18°58′E / 43.533°N 18.967°E / 43.533; 18.967 (Mocevici (north))

    point:

  • SouthernmostMala Ada, Ulcinj municipality — 41°55′N 19°22′E / 41.917°N 19.367°E / 41.917; 19.367 (Mala Ada (south))

    point:

  • EasternmostJablanica, Rožaje municipality — 42°53′N 20°21′E / 42.883°N 20.35°E / 42.883; 20.35 (Jablanica (east))

    point:

  • WesternmostPrijevor, Herceg Novi municipality — 42°29′N 18°26′E / 42.483°N 18.433°E / 42.483; 18.433 (Prijevor (west))

    point:

Statistics[edit]

Geographic coordinates:

Area — comparative: slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Connecticut

Area

Total: 13,812 km² (5,332 sq mi)

Land: 13,452 km² (5,193 sq mi)

Water: 360 km² (138 sq mi)

Length of the coast (coastline): 293.5 km (182 mi)

Length of the international borders: 625 km (388 mi) (all)

  • With Croatia: 14 km (8 mi) or 25 km (15 mi)
  • With Bosnia and Herzegovina: 225 km (139 mi)
  • With Serbia: 124 km (77 mi)
  • and with Albania: 172 km (106 mi)

Land under cultivation: 517,153 ha

Land use:

  • arable land: 12.45%
  • permanent crops: 1.16%
  • other: 86.39%

Irrigated land: 24.12 km2

Maritime claims:

Points
  • Lowest point
  • Highest point
  • NorthernmostMoćevići, Pljevlja municipality — 43°32′N 18°58′E / 43.533°N 18.967°E / 43.533; 18.967 (Mocevici (north))

    point:

  • SouthernmostMala Ada, Ulcinj municipality — 41°55′N 19°22′E / 41.917°N 19.367°E / 41.917; 19.367 (Mala Ada (south))

    point:

  • EasternmostJablanica, Rožaje municipality — 42°53′N 20°21′E / 42.883°N 20.350°E / 42.883; 20.350 (Jablanica (east))

    point:

  • WesternmostPrijevor, Herceg Novi municipality — 42°29′N 18°26′E / 42.483°N 18.433°E / 42.483; 18.433 (Prijevor (west))

    point:

Drainage

Montenegro’s surface runoff in the north is carried away by the Lim and Tara river systems, which enter the Danube via the Drina River, which forms the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. In southern Montenegro, streams flow toward the Adriatic. Much of the drainage of the karstic region is not on the surface but travels in underground channels.

Lake Scutari (known in Montenegro as Skadarsko Jezero), the country’s largest lake, lies near the coast and extends across the international border into northern Albania. It is 25 miles (40 km) long and 10 miles (16 km) wide, with a total surface area of 140 square miles (360 square km), and some three-fifths of it lies within Montenegrin territory. The lake occupies a karstic polje depression, the floor of which lies below sea level. Montenegro’s mountainous regions are noted for their numerous smaller lakes.

Weather and climate

Best time to visit

Montenegro has a Mediterranean climate on the coast, with alpine conditions in the mountains. The average summer coastal temperature is 27°C (81°F), and this is peak season (Jul-Aug), when the majority of visitors come here. Those who can’t bear the summer heat would do well to head inland for the mountains, where summer night time temperatures drop as low as 12°C (54°F).

In shoulder season (May-Jun and Sep-Oct) you can expect sunny days on the shores of the Adriatic – the sea is warm enough to swim, but without the crowds, and average daytime temperatures are 20°C (69°F). This is the ideal time for outdoor activities such as hiking and cycling, though bear in mind that there will be sporadic rain in the mountains.

In low season (Nov-Apr), many hotels and restaurants along the coast shut completely. The weather remains mild, with the average daytime winter temperature being 7°C (44°F). Inland, however, there is substantial snowfall in the mountains, with the average daytime winter temperature in Kolašin hovering around 0°C (32°F). In fact, Dec-Mar is peak season for inland towns such as Kolašin and Žabljak, which are popular ski resorts.

Required clothing

In winter, medium weight clothing and heavy overcoat and boots if travelling in the mountains; in summer, lightweight clothing, swimwear and sun cream required on the coast, plus a jumper or jacket for colder nights in the mountains.

Climate

Montenegro’s lower areas have a hotter Mediterranean climate, Temperature varies greatly with elevation. Some areas will experience a longer hot and dry summer with a mild/cool wet winter. Podgorica, lying near sea level, is noted for having the hottest July and August temperatures in Montenegro, averaging 33 °C (91.4 °F) and often reaching 47 °C (117 °F). Cetinje, in the karst at an elevation of 670 m (2,198 ft), has a temperature 5 °C (9 °F) lower at 22 °C (71.6 °F). January temperatures range from 8 °C (46.4 °F) at Bar on the southern coast to −3 °C (26.6 °F) in the northern mountains.

Montenegro’s mountainous regions receive the highest amounts of rainfall in Europe. Annual precipitation at Crkvice, in the Karst above the Bay of Kotor, is 4,928 mm (194 in), whist even on the coast it is around 3 metres (118 in), which in Eurasia north of the Himalayas is exceeded only on Japan’s Kii Peninsula, and in Podgorica it is around 1,600 millimetres (63 in), which shades Tōkyō and Seoul as the wettest capital in the world outside the tropics. Like most areas along the Mediterranean Sea, precipitation occurs principally during the cold part of the year, but in the higher mountains a secondary summer maximum is present. Snow cover is rare along the Montenegrin coast. It averages 10 days in karstic polje depressions and increases to 120 days in the higher mountains, where, like in southern Chile, the superabundant precipitation allows small glaciers although mean annual temperatures are well above 0 °C (32 °F).

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